Forskning

De to siste tiårene har forskerne studert hvordan barnets følelsesmessige utvikling påvirkes av foreldres forståelse av emosjoner og svar på barnas emosjonelle utrykk. Et gjennomgående funn er at foreldres reaksjoner på barnas følelsesmessige uttrykk er en sentral prediktor for senere vansker hos barna (Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998; Johnson, Hawes, Eisenberg; Morris, Silk, Steinberg, Myers, & Robinson, 2007).

Mye forskning på Tuning in to Kids er gjennomført i Australia, som også er programmets opprinnelsesland. Både kvalitative tilbakemeldinger og kvantitative studier tyder på klare forskjeller på foreldre og barn som har deltatt i programmet, sammenlignet med et utvalg som ikke har fått tilbudet. Et hovedfunn som går igjen, er at foreldre viser mer aksept og utviklingsstøtte, i tillegg til å ha færre kritiske holdninger og atferd til barnet etter at de har deltatt i Tuning in to Kids. Barna viser på sin side, færre sosiale problemer og økt emosjonell og sosial kompetanse.  

Forskning på Tuning in to Kids i Norge

Ved Psykologisk Institutt ved Universitet i Oslo foregår det flere forskningsprosjekter på Tuning in to Kids og emosjonell kompetanse hos barn og unge.

Førstemanuensis Evalill Bølstad Karevold leder flere studier av TIK, hvor blant annet foreldre og barn i førskolealder og lærere i barneskolen inngår. I den første pilotstudien av foreldreveiledningsprogrammet Tuning in to Kids i Norge, fant de at barn av foreldre som oppmuntrer dem til å snakke om følelser, har bedre emosjonell forståelse og mindre atferdsvansker. Dette funnet presenteres i en artikkel av stipendiat Rune Flaaten Bjørk og kolleger (Bjørk et al, 2020). Funnene tilsier at bedre forståelse av barnets emosjonelle behov og lavere foreldrestress medvirker til bedre sosial fungering.

Det er i tillegg skrevet flere masteroppgaver i Norge som evaluerer aspekter ved veiledningsprogrammet Tuning in to Kids. Her vises det at programmet ofte resulterer i positiv virkning, i form av økt emosjonell kompetanse hos førskoleforeldre.

Skolestudien Psykologisk Institutt ser på emosjonell kompetanse og TIK-veiledning av lærere. Hittil er det pilotstudier i flere bydeler i Oslo, blant annet i Frogner og Grorud bydel, med gode og positive tilbakemeldinger fra lærerne på veiledningen. 

Det pågår i tillegg en RCT-studie av TIK i norske FUS barnehager. I denne sammenheng har barnehageansatte fått opplæring i TIK og emosjonsveiledning, hvorpå effekten av dette måles for ansatte, barn og barnehagene. 49 barnehager deltar, og omtrent 1000 ansatte og 3500 barn blir påvirket. Siste pulje gjennomførte intervensjonen høsten 2020. Evalueringen av denne studien pågår fremdeles. 


Her er de viktigste studiene

Bjork, R.F., Havighurst, S.S., Pons, F., & Karevold, E. B. (under review). Testing TIK (Tuning in to Kids) with TEC (Test of Emotion Comprehension): An investigation of emotion socialization theory in Norwegian kindergarten children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.

Havighurst, S.S., Kehoe, C.E. & Harley, A.E., & Thomas, R. (under review). A randomized controlled trial of an emotion socialization parenting program and its impact on parenting, children’s behavior and parent and child stress cortisol: Tuning in to Toddlers. Behavior Research and Therapy. 

Rolock, N., Ocasio, K., White, K., Havighurst, S.S., Cho, Y., Fong, R., Marra, L., Faulkner, M. (2021). Testing Tuning in to Teens (TINT) with adoptive parents and guardians in the US: The replication phase of intervention research Journal of Public Child Welfare. 15, 1, 22-51. DOI: 10.1080/15548732.2020.1846660

Havighurst, S.S. & Kehoe, C.E. (2021). Tuning in to Kids: An emotion coaching approach to working with parents. In Allen, J.L., Hawes, D.J. & Essau, C.A. (Ed.s), Family-based Intervention for Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Core Competencies Approach. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Havighurst, S.S., Radovini, A., Hao, B. & Kehoe, C.E. (2020). Emotion-focused parenting interventions for prevention and treatment of child and adolescent mental health problems: A review of recent research. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 33, 6, 586–601. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0000000000000647

Kehoe, C.E., Havighurst, S.S., & Harley, A.E. (2020). Tuning in to Teens: Investigating moderators of program effects and mechanisms of change in an emotion focused group parenting program. Special Issue on Parental Socialization of Emotion and Self-Regulation: Understanding Processes and Application. Developmental Psychologist, 56, 623-637. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000875

Bjørk, R.F., Havighurst, S., Pons, F., & Karevold, E. (2020). Pathways to behavior problems in Norwegian kindergarten children: The role of parent emotion socialization and child emotion understanding. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 

Havighurst, S.S., Kehoe, C.E. & Harley, A.E., Allen, N., & Thomas, R. (under review). A randomized controlled trial of an emotion socialization parenting program and its impact on parenting, children’s behavior and parent and child stress cortisol: Tuning in to Toddlers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

Sexton, E., Kehoe, C.E., & Havighurst, S.S. (under review). Investigating mechanisms of change for fathers participating in an emotion-focused parenting program. Journal of Family Psychology.

Kehoe, C.E., Havighurst, S.S., & Harley, A.E. (2020). Tuning in to Teens: Investigating moderators of program effects and mechanisms of change in an emotion focused group parenting program. Special Issue on Parental Socialization of Emotion and Self-Regulation: Understanding Processes and Application. Developmental Psychologist,  56, 623-637.

Otterpohl, N., Buchenau, K., Havighurst, S.S., Stiensmeier-Pelster, J., & Kehoe, C.E. (2020). Tuning in to Kids: Ein Elterntraining zur Förderung der Emotionssozialisation im Vorschulalter. Kindheit und Entwicklung, 29, 52-60. Doi doi.org/10.1026/0942-5403/a000300.

Edrissi, F., Havighurst, S.S., Aghebati, A. Habibi, M., & Arani, A.M. (online first). A pilot study of the Tuning in to Kids parenting program in Iran for reducing preschool children’s anxiety. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01400-0

Havighurst, S.S. & Kehoe, C.E. (in press). Tuning in to Kids: An emotion coaching approach to working with parents. In Allen, J.L., Hawes, D.J. & Essau, C.A. (Ed.s), Family-based Intervention for Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Core Competencies Approach.Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Meybodi, F.A., Mohammadkhani, P., Pourshahbaz, A., Dolatshahi, B., & Havighurst, S.S. (online first). Improving Parent Emotion Socialization Practices: Piloting Tuning in to Kids in Iran. Family Relations.

Havighurst, S.S., Wilson, K.R., Harley, A.E. & Kehoe, C.E. (2019). Dads Tuning in to Kids: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Emotion Socialization Parenting Program for Fathers. Social Development, 00,  1-19. doi.org/10.1111/sode.12375

Havighurst, S.S., Kehoe, C.E. & Harley, A.E., Allen, N., & Thomas, R. (2019). Tuning in to Toddlers: Research protocol and recruitment for evaluation of an emotion socialization program for parents of toddlers. Frontiers in Psychology. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01054

Kehoe, C.E. & Havighurst, S.S. (2018). Treating emotion dysregulation in internalizing disorders. In Crowell, S.E. & Beauchaine, T.P (Ed.s), Oxford Handbook of Emotion Dysregulation. Oxford University Press: New York.

Meybodi, F.A., Mohammadkhani, P., Pourshahbaz, A., Dolatshahi, B., & Havighurst, S.S. (2017). Reducing Children’s Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study of Tuning in to Kids in Iran. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 15, 3, 1-7.

Havighurst, S.S. & Kehoe, C.E. (2017). The role of parental emotion regulation in parent emotion socialization: Implications for intervention. In Deater-Deckard, K. & Panneton, R.K. (Ed.s), Parenting Stress: Adaptive and Maladaptive Consequences for Developmental Well-Being of Children. Springer: New York.

Wilson, K.R., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E., (2016). Dads Tuning in to Kids: Program Manual. The University of Melbourne.

Wilson, K.R., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., & Harley, A. E. (2016). Dads Tuning in to Kids: Preliminary Evaluation of a new parenting program for fathers, Journal of Family Relations, 65, 4, 535-549.

Duncombe, M. E., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C., Holland, K. A., Frankling, E. J. & Stargatt, R. (2016). A randomized controlled comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused group parenting program for children at risk for conduct disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 320-334.

Wilson, K.R., Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., & Harley, A. E. (2016). Dads Tuning in to Kids: Preliminary Evaluation of a new parenting program for fathers, Journal of Family Relations, 65, 4, 535-549.

Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., Harley, A. E., & Wilson, K. R. (2015). Tuning in to Kids: An emotion focused parenting intervention for children with disruptive behaviour problems. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 41-50. (5YIF=0.95)

Havighurst, S. S., Duncombe, M. E., Frankling, E. J., Holland, K. A., Kehoe, C. E., & Stargatt, R. (2015). An emotion-focused early intervention for children with emerging conduct problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(4), 749-760.

Havighurst, S. S., Harley, A. E., Kehoe, C.E., & Wilson, K. R. (2015). Tuning in to Toddlers. Unpublished manual: The University of Melbourne.

Havighurst, S. S., Kehoe, C. E., & Harley, A. E. (2015). Tuning in to Teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 148-158.

Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2015). Somatic complaints in early adolescence: The role of parents’ emotion socialization. Journal of Early Adolescence, 35(7), 966-989 

Kehoe, C. E., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2014). Tuning in to Teens: Improving parent emotion socialization to reduce youth internalizing difficulties. Social Development, 23(2), 413-431.

Lauw, M. S. M., Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K., Harley, A. E., & Northam, E. A. (2014). Improving parenting of toddlers’ emotions using an emotion coaching parenting program: A pilot study of tuning in to toddlers. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 2, 169-175.

Wilson, K. R., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2014). Dads Tuning in to Kids: Piloting a new parenting program targeting fathers’ emotion coaching skills. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(2), 162-168.

Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2013). Tuning in to Kids: Emotion coaching for early learning staff. Belonging: Early Years Journal, 2(1), 22-25.

Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., Kehoe, C., Efron, D., & Prior, M. R. (2013). “Tuning into Kids”: Reducing young children’s behavior problems using an emotion coaching parenting program. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 44(2), 247-264.

Havighurst, S. S., Harley, A. E., Kehoe, C., & Pizarro, E. (2012). Tuning in to Teens: Emotionally Intelligent Parenting Program Manual. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Wilson, K. R., Havighurst, S. S., & Harley, A. E. (2012). Tuning in to Kids: An effectiveness trial of a parenting program targeting emotion socialization of preschoolers. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(1), 56-65.

Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., Prior, M. R., & Kehoe, C. (2010). Tuning in to Kids: Improving emotion socialization practices in parents of preschool children – findings from a community trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(12), 1342-1350.

Havighurst, S. S. & Harley, A. E. (2007; 2010). Tuning in to Kids: Emotionally Intelligent Parenting Program Manual. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne.

Havighurst, S. S., Wilson, K. R., Harley, A. E., & Prior, M. R. (2009). Tuning in to kids: An emotion-focused parenting program – initial findings from a community trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 37(8), 1008-1023.

Havighurst, S. S., Harley, A., & Prior, M. (2004). Building preschool children’s emotional competence: A parenting program. Early Education and Development, 15(4), 423-448.

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